Note that airlines typically form joint ventures between certain regions, which is different from a full merger. For example, American has a transatlantic joint venture with British Airways, Finnair and Iberia, while they also have a trans-Pacific joint venture with Japan Airlines. Deeper partnerships provide for more exchanges, more cooperation and more strategic actions between the airlines concerned. These include codeshares and joint ventures. Interline agreements differ from codeshare agreements in that codeshare agreements generally relate to the numbering of a flight with the airline code (abbreviation), although the flight is operated by another airline. However, codeshare relationships may affect whether an interline ticket (or e-ticket) can be issued, as both the codeshare airline and the codeshare operator must have interline agreements with all other airlines on the route in order for a single ticket to be issued. Routes with such interline connections are riskier for travelers, given that the second airline may not experience any delays or problems with the arriving flight and, in case of loss of the route, it is less likely that there will be a free rebooking. . . .
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