The clashes between Nathu La and Cho La were a series of military clashes between India and China in 1967 along the border of the Himalayan kingdom of Sikkim, then an Indian protectorate. The end of the conflict saw the withdrawal of the Chinese army from Sikkim. Finally, the border conflict for India`s foreign policy planners will likely show that its preferred formulation – “the world is a family,” derived from a Sanskrit saying – does not apply to all its bilateral relations, unless a family`s interpretation includes family members working against India`s national interests. From this point of view, India could begin to make more decisions about its partnerships, recognizing that it is not possible to maintain equal relations with all indefinitely. The Sino-Indian border conflict is a persistent territorial dispute over the sovereignty of two relatively large areas and several smaller and separate areas between China and India. The first of these, Aksai Chin, is claimed by China under the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and the Tibet Autonomous Region and claimed by India as part of the territory of the Ladakh Union; It is a virtually uninhabited desert in the large regions of Kashmir and Tibet, crossed by the Xinjiang-Tibet highway. The other controversial area is south of the McMahon Line, formerly known as the North East Frontier Agency and now Arunachal Pradesh. The McMahon Line was part of the 1914 Simla Convention, signed between British India and Tibet without China`s approval.  Starting in 2020, India continues to assert that the McMahon Line is the legal border to the east. China never accepted this border and stated that Tibet was never independent when it signed the Simla Convention. Since then, thousands of troops have been deployed on both sides of the de facto Line of Actual Control (LAC) border, and experts fear that tensions could lead to an involuntary war. The world`s two most populous nations have been involved in a border conflict since April, when rival soldiers fought skirmishes at several locations on their mountainfront. Monday`s military talks took place less than two weeks after the meeting of the two countries` foreign ministers on September 10, and agreed that their troops should withdraw from the tense border, keep the right distance and ease tensions.
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